Gender and household education expenditure in Turkey
Susanlı, Zehra Bilgen
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This paper investigates how the share of education expenditure in the household budget varies across Turkish households with different gender-age composition of children. Using household level data from Household Budget Surveys over the period 2004 - 2008, I find no evidence for a pro-male bias. Results suggest that a pro-female bias at the secondary school level emerged in 2006 which is in line with declining gender gaps in enrolment at the secondary school level. Findings in both urban and rural areas suggest that Turkish households do not favor boys in the allocation of education expenditures. To the contrary, in 2006 girls of secondary school age group receive more educational resources than boys of the same age group. This may be explained by the effect of both education and textbook assistance campaigns. Further research is needed to make other labor market oriented explanations.