Beamforming and hardware design for a multichannel front-end integrated circuit for real-time 3D catheter-based ultrasonic imaging
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CitationWygant, I. O., Karaman, M., Oralkan, Ö., Khuri-Yakub, B. T. (2006). Beamforming and hardware design for a multichannel front-end integrated circuit for real-time 3D catheter-based ultrasonic imaging. Paper presented at the Medical Imaging 2006: Ultrasonic Imaging And Signal Processing, 1-8. doi:10.1117/12.673786
We are working on integrating front-end electronics with the ultrasound transducer array for real-time 3D ultrasound imaging systems. We achieve this integration by flip-chip bonding a two-dimensional transducer array to an integrated circuit (IC) that comprises the front-end electronics. The front-end IC includes preamplifiers, multiplexers, and pulsers. We recently demonstrated a catheter-based real-time ultrasound imaging system based on a 16 x 16-element capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) array. The CMUT array is flip-chip bonded to a front-end IC that includes a pulser and preamplifier for each element of the array. To simplify the back-end processing and signal routing on the IC for this initial implementation, only a single array element is active at a time (classic synthetic aperture (CSA) imaging). Compared with classic phased array imaging (CPA), where multiple elements are used on transmit and receive, CSA imaging has reduced signal-to-noise ratio and prominent grating lobes. In this work, we evaluate three array designs for the next generation front-end IC. The designs assume there are 16 receive channels and that numerous transmit pulsers are provided by the IC. The designs presented are: plus-transmit x-receive, boundary-transmit x-receive with no common elements, and full-transmit x-receive with no common elements. Each design is compared with CSA and CPA imaging. We choose to implement an IC for the full-transmit x-receive with no common elements (FT-XR-NC) design for our next-generation catheter-based imaging system.