The limits of R&D internationalization and the importance of local initiatives: Turkey as a critical case
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KünyeKarabağ, S. F., Berggren, C. & Tuncay Çelikel, A. (2011). The limits of R&D internationalization and the importance of local initiatives: Turkey as a critical case. World Development, 39(8), 1347. doi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2010.12.012
The growth of R&D in East Asia has triggered the notion of a new innovation geography, where R&D is no longer a privilege of the traditional OECD countries. What does this mean for mid-sized emerging economies, without the scale advantages and bargaining power of India or China? This paper uses Turkey as a case to examine the continual unevenness of international R&D investments. By analyzing opportunities and limitations for local initiatives in the telecommunications, pharmaceutical, and automotive industries the paper finds that active private capital, a sufficient scale of production, and focused public policies are needed to attract international R&D.