Film formation from TiO2-polystyrene latex composite: a fluorescence study
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KünyeTepehan, F., Sunay, S., Uğur, Ş. & Pekcan, M. Ö. (2007). Film formation from TiO2-polystyrene latex composite: A fluorescence study. Composite Interfaces, 14(3), 243-260. doi:10.1163/156855407780340340
This work reports the use of the steady state fluorescence (SSF) technique for studying film formation from TiO2 covered polystyrene (PS) latex particles. The composite films were prepared from pyrene (P)-labeled PS particles by covering them with TiO2 at room temperature and then annealed at elevated temperatures in 10 min time interval above glass transition (T-g) temperature of polystyrene. Five different composite films were studied in various TiO2 layer contents. Fluorescence intensities Ip from P were measured after each annealing step to monitor the stages of film formation. Films showed considerable increase in Ip above the certain onset temperature called minimum film forming temperature, T-0. Void closure and interdiffusion stages were modeled and related activation energies were determined and found to be 23.12 and 92.80 kJ mol(-1), respectively.